Literature Review

  1. Context
  2. Designing Montessori
  3. Influences
  4. Educational Software
  5. Arguments Against
  6. Answers to Objections
  7. A Good Quote
  8. Bibliography
  9. Resources


  1. Design Problem
  2. Literature Review
  3. Work Models
  4. Design Patterns
  5. Design Experiments
  6. Lesson Ideas
  7. Montessori Computes
  8. Thinking About Circles

Related Links

Patterns and Design



Adams, B. N., & Sydie, R. A. (2001). Sociological theory. Pine Forge Press.

Agodini, R. et al., The Effectiveness of Educational Technology: Issues and Recommendations for the National Study (Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research, 2003),

Ayers, I. (2008). Super Crunchers: Why Thinking-by-Numbers Is the New Way to Be Smart. Random House LLC.

Baker, David B. The Oxford Handbook of the History of Psychology: Global Perspectives. Oxford University Press, 2011.

Bellamy, R. (1987). Modern Italian Social Theory. Stanford University Press.

Bergson, H., & Mitchell, A. (1913). Creative evolution. H. Holt and Company.

Biesta, G. J. J. (2004). Pragmatism and Educational Research. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.

Beyer, H., & Holtzblatt, K. (1998). Contextual Design. San Francisco, California: Morgan Kaufmann Publisher, Inc.

Birch, A. H. (2001). The concepts and theories of modern democracy. Routledge.

Blodget, R. (1998). (Telephone conversation, April 24, 1998).

Brooks, J. I. (1998). The Eclectic Legacy. University of Delaware Press.

Cahan, D. (2003). From natural philosophy to the sciences. University of Chicago Press.

Chattin-McNichols, J. (1992). The Montessori controversy. Albany, NY: Delmar.

Claparède, É., Louch, M., & Holman, H. (1912). Experimental pedagogy and the psychology of the child. Longmans, Green.

Clements, D. H., & Meredith, J. s. (1992, 2000). Research on Logo: Effects and Efficacy. Retrieved January 2, 2004, 2004, from

Clements, D. H., & Sarama, J. (2002). Effects of a Preschool Mathematics Curriculum: Research on the NSF-funded Building Blocks Project: University at Buffalo, State University of New York.

Cohodes, Sarah, Elizabeth Setren, Christopher Walters, Joshua Angrist, and Parag Pathak. Charter School Demand and Effectiveness: A Boston Update. Boston, MA: The Boston Foundation, 2013.

Comte, Auguste. (1858). The Positive Philosophy of Auguste Comte. Calvin Blanchard.

Collins, A. (1991). Toward a Design Science of Education (No. IR014417). New York: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.

Copleston, F. (2003). A history of philosophy. Continuum International Publishing Group.

Crowell, J. F. (1898). The logical process of social development. Henry Holt and co.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1991). Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers.

Culverwell, E. P. (1913). The Montessori Principles and Practice (p. 309). G. Bell & Sons ltd.

Cunningham, P. (2000). The Montessori Phenomenon: Gender and Internationalism in Early Twentieth-Century Innovation. In Practical Visionaries: Women, Education and Social Progress, 1790 - 1930 (1st ed.). Longman Publishing Group.

Cushman, H. E. (1911). A beginner's history of philosophy. London: George G. Harrap & Company..

De Jesus, R. (1987). Design Guidelines for Montessori Schools. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee.

Dewey, J., & Dewey, E. (1915). Schools of to-morrow. New York: E.P. Dutton & Company.

Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and education. Macmillan.

Dodin, T., & Räther, H. (2001). Imagining Tibet: Perceptions, Projections and Fantasies. Somerville, MA: Wisdom Publications.

Donahue, S. (1974). Twenty Design Characteristics of a Practical Life Exercise and its Materials. The Constructive Triangle, 1(1), 57-58.

Drake, R. (2003). Apostles and agitators. Harvard University Press.

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Egan, K. (2004). Getting It Wrong from the Beginning. Yale University Press.

Feez, S. (2007). Montessori's mediation of meaning: a social semiotic perspective. The Sydney eScholarship Repository. Retrieved September 2, 2009, from

Fiamingo, G. (1895). Sociology in Italy. American Journal of Sociology, 1, 335-352.

Foschi, R. (2008). Science and Culture Around the Montessori's First "Children's Houses" in Rome (1907-1915). Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, Published online in Wiley Interscience, 44(3), 238-257. doi: 10.1002/jhbs.30313.

Franklin, C. (2003). Why Innovation Fails. Rollinsford, NH: Spiro Press.

Freudenthal, H. (1983). Didactical Phenomenology of Mathematical Structures. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Company.

Fuys, D., Geddes, D., & Tischler, R. (1988). The van Hiele Model of Thinking in Geometry among Adolescents (Reports - Descriptive; Reports - Research No. SE049183). Reston, VA: The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc.

Galleni, L. (1995). How Does the Teilhardian Vision of Evolution Compare with Contemporary Theories? Zygon, 30(1), 25-45. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9744.1995.tb00050.x.

Garin, E., & Pinton, G. A. (2007). History of Italian philosophy. Rodopi.

Gay, P. (1984). The Bourgeois Experience: Victoria to Freud. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Gebhardt-Seele Peter, G. (1985). The computer and the child : a Montessori approach. Rockville, MD.: Computer Science Press.

Gentile, G. (1922). The reform of education. Harcourt.

Gould, S. J. (1996). The Mismeasure of Man. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.

Hall, G. S. (1905). Adolescence. D. Appleton and company.

Hardy, M. C. (1918). The Derivation of the Montessori Didactic Apparatus. The Elementary school journal, 18, 294-300.

Harris, L., & Jenkin, M. (1998). Vision and action. Cambridge University Press.

Hart, C. (2003). Doing a Literature Review: Releasing the Social Science Research Imagination. London: SAGE Publications, Ltd.

Hayek, F.A. (2010) Studies on the Abuse and Decline of Reason: Text and Documents. Routledge.

Hayes, M. (2005). Montessori's View of Cosmic Education. 25th International Montessori Congress, Sydney. Retrieved January 3, 2010, from

Herbart, J. F., & Browning, O. (1893). The science of education. D. C. Heath & co.

Hoyles, C., & Noss, R. (1992). Learning mathematics and Logo. Cambridge, Mass. ; London: MIT Press.

Hughes, H. S. (1977). Consciousness and Society: The Reorientation of European Social Thought 1890-1930. Frogmore: Paladin.

Improving Measurement and Geometry in Elementary Schools Team (2003). IMAGES. Retrieved January 2, 2004, 2004, from

Johanningmeier, E. V., & Richardson, T. R. (2007). Educational Research, the National Agenda, and Educational Reform: A History (p. 520). IAP.

Jung, C. G. (1916). Analytical psychology. Moffat, Yard and Co.

Labriola, A., & Kerr, C. H. (1908). Essays on the materialistic conception of history (p. 246). C. H. Kerr & Co.

Leone, T. J. (1997). Montessori Classroom Culture and Effective Use of Computers in the School.Unpublished manuscript.

Lillard, Angeline S. (2005). Montessori: The Science Behind the Genius. New York: Oxford University Press.

Lillard, A. “The Early Years: Evaluating Montessori Education.” Science 313, no. 5795 (September 29, 2006): 1893–1894. doi:10.1126/science.1132362.

Lillard, Paula P. (1996). Montessori today : a comprehensive approach to education from birth to. New York: Schocken.

Kearney, R. (1994). Twentieth-century Continental philosophy. Routledge.

Killinger, C. L. (2005). Culture and customs of Italy (p. 246). Greenwood Publishing Group.

Kramer, R., & Freud, A. (1988). Maria Montessori: A Biography. Westview Press.

Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 3rd ed. (University of Chicago Press, 1996).

Mill, J. S. (1866). Auguste Comte and Positivism. N. Tuübner

Montessori, M. (1909/1912/1964). The Montessori method. New York: Schocken Books.

Montessori, M. (1970). The child in the family. Chicago,: H. Regnery Co.

Montessori, M. (1936/1981). The Secret of Childhood (J. M. Costelloe, Trans.). New York: Ballantine Books.

Montessori, M. (1971). Maria Montessori's contribution to educational thought and practice. Published on behalf of National Montessori Centenary Committee by Association of Delhi Montessorians.

Montessori, M. (1986). Discovery of the Child. New York : Balintine Books.

Montessori, M. (2004). The Discovery of the Child (p. 372). Aakar Books.

Montessori, M. (1991). The advanced Montessori method : scientific pedagogy as applied to the education of children from seven to eleven years: Clio Press.

Montessori, M. (1917/1995). The Advanced Montessori Method: Scientific Pedagogy as Applied to the Education of Children from Seven to Eleven Years (Heinemann, 1917/Schocken, 1995).

Montessori, M. (1917). The Advanced Montessori Method: Spontaneous activity in education, tr. by Florence Simmonds. Frederick A. Stokes Company.

Montessori, M. (1995). The absorbent mind (1st ed.). New York: Henry Holt.

Montessori, M., & Cooper, F. T. (1913). Pedagogical Anthropology. Frederick A. StokesCompany.

Montessori, Mario (1984). Dr. Maria Montessori and the Child. In The Spiritual Hunger of the Modern Child: A Series of Ten Lectures. Charles Town, WV: Claymont.

Montessori, Mario M. Jr, Paula Polk Lillard, and Buckminster Fuller (1976). Education for Human Development: Understanding Montessori. New York: Schocken.

Montessori, M., & Gutek, G. L. (2004). The Montessori method. Rowman & Littlefield.

National Center for Education Statistics (2003, September 9, 2003). National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Questions. Retrieved January 2, 2004, 2004, from

Neubert, A. B. (1992). Is There an American Montessori Model? In M. H. Loeffler (Ed.), Montessori in contemporary American culture (pp. 49-67). Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

New Jersey State Conference of Social Work, & New Jersey State Conference of Charities and Corrections. (1912). Proceedings of the New Jersey Conference of Charities and Corrections.

Nunn, T. P. (1907). The aim and achievements of scientific method. Macmillan and Co.

Nunn, T. P. (1920). Education: Its Data and First Principles. New York: Longmans, Green and Co.

Nye, R. A. 1976. Heredity or milieu: The foundations of modern European
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Orwin, C., & Tarcov, N. (1997). The legacy of Rousseau. University of Chicago Press.

Papert, S. (1993). Mindstorms : children, computers and powerful ideas (2nd ed ed.). New York ; London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.

Phillips, D. C., & Burbules, N. C. (2000). Postpositivism and Educational Research. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Phillips, D. C. (2007). Chapter 16, Adding Complexity: Philosophical Perspectives on the Relationship Between Evidence and Policy. Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, 106(1), 376-402. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7984.2007.00110.x.

Piccoli, R. (1922). Benedetto Croce. Harcourt, Brace and Co.

Prescott, A., Mitchelmore, M., & White, P. (2002, July, 2002). Student Difficulties in Abstracting Angle Concepts from Physical Activities with Concrete Materials. Paper presented at the The 25th Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australia Incorporated, Auckland, New Zealand.

Radice, M. S. J. (1920). The new children. Frederick A. Stokes company.

Rambusch, N. M., & Stoops, J. A.The Authentic American Montessori School: A Guide to the Self-Study, Evaluation, and Accreditation of American Schools Committed to Montessori Education. Retrieved January 2, 2004, 2004, from

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Ricks, G. (1893). Object Lessons and How to Give Them. London: Ibister & Co., Tavistock Street. Retrieved December 23, 2009, from

Rieber, R. W., & Robinson, D. K. (2001). Wilhelm Wundt in history (p. 324). Springer.

Rockmore, T. (2007). Kant and idealism. Yale University Press.

Rohrs, H. (1994). Maria Montessori (1870-1952). The Quarterly Review of Comparative Education, XXIV(1/2). Retrieved October 25, 2008 from

Russo, J. P. (2005). The future without a past. University of Missouri Press.

Schofield, J. W. (1995). Computers and Classroom Culture. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Seguin, E. (1866). Idiocy: and its treatment by the physiological method. W. Wood & co.

Shook, J. R. (2000). Dewey's empirical theory of knowledge and reality. Vanderbilt University Press.

Sidy, V. (2003). Buildings That Nurture. The NAMTA Journal, 28(2), 143-154.

Spencer, H. (1860). Education: Intellectual, Moral, and Physical (p. 301). D. Appleton and company.

Spencer, H. (1864). A Letter from Mr. Herbert Spencer. New Englander and Yale Review, 23(86), 169-172.

Spencer, H. (1870). First principles. Williams and Norgate.

Spencer, H. (1886). Select Works of Herbert Spencer: The Data of Ethics. Progress: It’s Laws & Cause. The Philosophy of Style. Essays. J.B. Alden.

Standing, E. M., & Havis, L. (1998). Maria Montessori: Her Life and Work. New York: Plume.

Stewart-Steinberg, S. (2008). The Pinocchio effect. University of Chicago Press.

Suzuki, Shunryu. Zen Mind, Beginner’s Mind. New York and Tokyo: Weatherhill, Inc., 2000.

Thilly, F. (1914). A history of philosophy. H. Holt.

Tittoni, T. (1922). Modern Italy. New York: The Macmillan Company.

Trent, J. W. (1995). Inventing the Feeble Mind. University of California Press.

Trilling, L. (1955). Freud and the crisis of our culture. Boston : Beacon Press.

Turner, J. S. (1992). Montessori's Writings Versus Montessori Practices. In M. H. Loeffler (Ed.), Montessori in contemporary American culture (pp. 17-47). Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Turner, W. (1903). History of Philosophy. Boston: Ginn & Company.

Vaccari, E. (2009). Geology and Genesis in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Italy: a preliminary assessment. In Geology and religion: a history of harmony and hostility (p. 357). Geological Society.

Walling, W. E. (1913). The larger aspects of socialism. The Macmillan company.

Wal, S. (2006). Education & Child Development. Sarup & Sons.

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Weber, M., & Whimster, S. (2004). The essential Weber. Routledge.

Wooldridge, A. (1994). Measuring the mind. Cambridge University Press.

Yen, S.-C. J. (1999, 1999). Shu-Chen Jenny Yen's On-Line Montessori Albums. Retrieved January 1, 2004, 2004, from

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